Interfaith Initiatives in Indonesia

Srikandi Lintas Iman

Srikandi Lintas Iman (SRILI) Yogyakarta was born from the concern of interfaith women in Yogyakarta to sit together, share, and exchange ideas and programs to manage religious, socio-cultural diversity. This movement is based on the awareness of the importance of the role of women in creating harmony, security, comfort, justice and peace in the midst of society.

The social context, in the form of incidents of religion-based violence that occurred in Yogyakarta and several other areas, has become a bad record for the continuation of harmony in society. The rise of radical movements and intolerant actions that threaten the pluralism and unity of the nation, has also become an impetus for cross-faith women to carry out grassroots civil movements through dialogue and interfaith cooperation, and open up space for discussion to dare to reinterpret the teachings of religions in view freedom of religion and belief, as well as how religious communities can contribute in solving social problems that occur in everyday life.

Srikandi Lintas Iman holds regular meetings and discussions, organizes workshops and trainings, and builds and develop networks as well as cooperates to respond to real problems of women and children on the basis of interfaith communities.

(https://www.srikandilintasiman.org/profil-srikandi-lintas-iman-yogyakarta/)

YIFoS (Youth Interfaith Forum of Sexuality) Indonesia

Youth Interfaith Forum on Sexuality is a forum consists of interfaith young people. It established in a meeting at Buddhism School of Syailendra, Kopeng Salatiga on March 7th 2010 as a medium to build discourse and action related to faith and sexuality through critical dialogues, reflections, contesting the religious scriptures due to human sexuality, and also involvement in conducting certain actions or initiatives with other communities and individuals to respond both issues.

Faith and sexuality are important issues to be discussed since sexuality has become taboo thing in religious institution and norms, while at the same time, religion also concerns on human sexuality. Religion, then, become a mean to legitimize the ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ sexuality, based on the holy scriptures. On the other hand, sexuality is not always related to biological sex and also sexual behaviour, but also has already become an integrated part of being a human – as orientation and also identity.

YIFoS is then become a forum to build understanding that sexuality and faith are part of humanity which have diverse actualization so that can’t be limited into some categories. The six legal religion in Indonesia still can’t accommodate diverse faith and also the sexual norm that exists in our society also hasn’t accommodate diverse sexualities. That’s why this forum become the space, especially for young people to build dialogue and learn from each other about diverse faith and sexuality so that the stereotypes, hate, or even violence can be eliminated so that the diversity can be celebrated.

(https://www.facebook.com/YIFoS/about/)

Percik – The Institute for Social Research, Democracy and Social Justice

Percik (Nursery for Humanity Love), is an independent institution devoted to social research, democracy and social justice. Since its establishment in 1996 this institution has three pillars (clumps) of activities, namely research, advocacy and reflection which mainly focuses on five strategic issues. These five issues are Good Local Governance, Democratic Institutionalization, Poverty, Conflict, Transformation of Local Religious Practices. To roll out the five issues above, the entrance to their implementation can be voiced through the support of three pillars: research, advocacy and reflection.

In the research sector, Percik has developed two centers of study, namely: the Center for Local Political Research (P2PL) and the Center for the Study of Transformation of Local Religious Practices (PSTPKal). Apart from conducting research activities, this study center also conducts research methodology training activities for young researchers from various regions in Indonesia and various seminars (such as the International Annual Seminar on Local Political Dynamics) as an effort to build a network of local observers and researchers.

Various examples of research conducted by the Percik Institute include: the Pekalongan riots (1999); Election (1999, 2004); Social Safety Net in the Health Sector in Central Java (1999); Local Political Dynamics (1999, 2004, 2005); Decentralization (2000, 2002, 2005); Regional Expansion (2007); Local Religious Movements (1996, 2001, 2006, 2007, 2011); Professional Ethics (2004); Social Security (2010); Local Institutions (2002, 2005); Post-Disaster Reconstruction (2008); Implementation of Community Empowerment and Development Programs (1999, 2011).

In the field of advocacy, Percik has advocacy activities that lead to the creation of Good Local Governance, development of democratic institutions, empowerment of civil society, conflict prevention, and maintenance of a good environment. Some of the advocacy activities carried out include: policy advocacy and law enforcement, skill training programs in the legislative field (legal drafting, budget analysis, etc.), organizational capacity building and alternative dispute resolution, voter education, development of interfaith dialogue forums for Conflict Prevention, Community Oriented Policing (COP) and the development of citizen forums.

Reflection activities are realized through holding discussions, seminars, workshops and publications (journals and books). For example, the Annual International Seminar is followed by a Roundtable Discussion as an effort to reconcile study results with policy advocacy. From this point, the theoretical basis and empirical implementation which became this study were in dialogue. The hope is that many issues related to public service and democratic life at the local level can be pushed into a kind of public policy recommendation (policy brief) or in the form of publication of a whole idea. Thus, if the seminar itself is more limited-oriented and seems elitist, then the publication product can become a preference to encourage democratic life in the regions.

(https://percik.or.id/profil/)

Yayasan Perdamaian Lintas Agama dan Golongan (YPLAG) Surakarta

YPLAG is an independent non-profit organization. YPLAG is a movement from various religious and community leaders also intercultural groups in Surakarta (Solo) who’s willingly serve theirselves to build Solo as a city of peace. YPLAG declared on 2003 through the Peace Declaration by 4000 attendances at Keraton Kasunanan Hall, Surakarta.

YPLAG’s vision it to eliminate political, economical, cultural, and religious conflict, support the development of peace and plurality spirit and strengthen the capacity of the human resources for the peacebuilding.

YPLAG’s mission it to empower the community to manage the conflict fairly and usefully, as well as to establish Solo as the peace education center which effect globally (SIPI: Solo Interfaith Peace Institute).

YPLAG does empowerment work at the grassroots level on peace building in order for not to be provoked easily, approaches the government to take active role on city peace building and to protect the citizen from any harm and violence, as well as does conflict transformation to the hard line groups as well as to the moderate groups from different background.

(https://yplag.org/vision-mission/)

Institut Mosintuwu

The MOSINTUWU Institute is an association of people who work for peace efforts during conflict and post-conflict in the Poso Regency and surrounding areas. The MOSINTUWU Institute stands for concern over incidents of violence in the name of religion, and the existence of political economic interests behind violent conflicts that end in natural resource management that does not side with the poor and marginalized. The Mosintuwu Institute itself was born through a long process. The research on women and children was conducted by Lian Gogali, since 2005 in Poso, became the starting point for the birth of the Mosintuwu Institute. In her research, Lian Gogali found the dynamics and perspectives of women that illustrate the strength of women’s experiences and knowledge in building Poso peace. Lian also found economic and political dynamics that had a strong stake in the Poso conflict, which contributed to the violent conflict and neglected the need for peace rooted in grassroots communities. The Mosintuwu Institute started the movement as a grassroots women’s movement. Critical education through the Mosintuwu Women’s School is the first step of the Mosintuwu movement. Currently, Mosintuwu has members from various ethnic and religious backgrounds in Poso Regency. The name MOSINTUWU is taken from the Pamona language (a tribe in Poso) which means Working Together. The addition of the word Institut in front of the word MOSINTUWU describes the spirit of MOSINTUWU as a critical space in responding to social, economic, political and cultural phenomena in Poso Regency, as well as describing the basic basis of the MOSINTUWU movement as critical studies (through research) which are responded to by developing various forms of programs.

MOSINTUWU

  • creates educational spaces that are pro-people to be able to obtain and fight for economic, socio-cultural (EKOSOB) and civil-political rights (SIPOL); realizing peace and justice development; creating an environmental ecosystem that is in harmony and solidarity with nature; maintaining traditions and culture.
  • conducts research and critical studies of the economic, social, cultural and civil-political contexts in society; peace and justice development; ecosystem and environment; traditions and culture.
  • encourages and increasing awareness (together with) the people to achieve sovereignty over economic, social, cultural and civil-political rights; peace and justice development; ecosystem and environment; traditions and culture.
  • assists village communities and learning together with the people in obtaining and fighting for economic, socio-cultural (EKOSOB) and civil-political rights (SIPOL); realizing peace and justice development; creating an environmental ecosystem that is in harmony and solidarity with nature; maintaining traditions and culture.
  • campaigns for perspectives, activities or programs, and the people’s struggle for economic, socio-cultural (EKOSOB) and civil-political rights (SIPOL); in the framework of realizing peace and justice development; creating an environmental ecosystem that is in harmony and solidarity with nature; maintaining traditions and culture.

(http://www.mosintuwu.com/tentang-kami/)

Institut Dialog Antariman di Indonesia (Institut DIAN)/Institute for Interfaith Dialogue in Indonesia (Interfidei)

Institute DIAN/Interfidei was established on December 20, 1991 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, notarized under document no. 38 (de jure). It was publicly launched as an institution (de facto) on August 10, 1992. The founders of the Institute are the late Th. Sumartana, Ph.D., the late Rev. Eka Darmaputera, Ph.D., Daniel Dhakidae, Ph.D., the late Zulkifly Lubis, and Djohan Effendi, Ph.D.

Institut Dialog Antariman di Indonesia or Institute for Interfaith Institute’s mission is: to nurture a religious point of view that supports pluralism and dialogue, to develop dialogue and solid cooperation among faiths, to support processes of religious transformation as a way to solve humanitarian concerns, namely justice, peace, and the integrity of all creation, without violence.

The Institute represents no specific religion or faith and has no branch offices. It engages with every single faith among the Indonesian people, including indigenous faiths of the tribes from the eastern end of Indonesia, Merauke, to the western end, Sabang. The Institute is a forum that embraces and fosters all faith backgrounds, both conceptually and practically, which grow from the discourse of pluralism. It also provides space for people to discuss their experiences of diversities to later take initiatives. The Institute works for all humanity on the grounds of justice, peace, and the integrity of creation.

The Institute extends its programs over all parts of the archipelago by promoting collaboration among its networking groups. The Institute programs include education, research, publication, library facilities, and networking.

(https://www.globalministries.org/partner/interfidei/)

KUNCI Cultural Studies Center Yogyakarta

KUNCI experiments with methods in producing and sharing knowledge through the acts of studying together at the intersections between affective, manual and intellectual labor. Since its founding in 1999 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, KUNCI has been continuously transforming its structure, ways and medium of working.

Initially formed as a cultural studies study group, at present KUNCI’s practices emphasize on collectivizing study, by way of making-space, discussion, library, research, publishing, press and school-organizing.

KUNCI traverses and connects institutional, disciplinary and local boundaries. KUNCI’S membership is based on friendship and informality, as well as self-organized and collaborative principles.

Members of KUNCI are Antariksa (founder), Brigitta Isabella, Ferdiansyah Thajib, Fiky Daulay, Gatari Surya Kusuma, Hayyu Al Qayyumi, Nuraini Juliastuti (founder), Rifki Akbar Pratama, Syafiatudina, and Verry Handayani.

(http://kunci.or.id/about-us/)

YIPCI (Young Interfaith Peacemaker Community Indonesia)

Two objectives of YIPC Indonesia are Peace Education and Interfaith Dialogue based on the Holy Book. 

The dialogue between religious figures at first is more often facilitated by the government and attended by religious leaders. Very rarely a dialogue happens between individuals (on a grassroot level). Students are known to be agents of change thus, they should take part in the peace efforts and dialogue between religious people in order to establish a peaceful generation. 

Based on this idea the Young Interfaith Peacemaker Community (YIPC) Indonesia was developed.The formation of YIPC was initiated by two ICRS Yogyakarta students (Andreas Jonathan, and Ayi Yunus Rusyana) who were holding Young Peacemaker Training in Gedung Pascasarjana UGM Yogyakarta, from 9-12 July 2012. Starting from Yogyakarta the YIPC community now reaches various big Indonesian cities, such as Medan, Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Malang, Solo, Salatiga. Right now YIPC programs are pioneering in Borneo and Ambon.

(https://yipci.org/#about)

SETARA Institute for Democracy and Peace

SETARA Institute is an organization that founded by some individuals which dedicated to the ideal that everyone should be treated equal while respecting diversity, giving priority to solidarity and upholding human dignity. It was founded by people who would like to eliminate discrimination and intolerance on the basis of religion, ethnicity, tribe, skin color, gender, and other social statuses, and promote solidarity with the weak and victims.

SETARA Institute believes that a democratic society would allow progress and mutual understanding, uphold honor, and recognize diversity. However, discrimination and intolerance still exist and even lead to violence. Therefore, some measures that strengthen respect for diversity and human rights through broader participation should be undertaken to advance democracy and peace.

SETARA Institute is promoting the creation of conditions that would lead to an open political system based on respect for diversity, defense of human rights, and elimination of intolerance and xenophobic attitude. Since its establishment, at least for 5 years operation, Setara Institute has been produced 20 reports (in research report form, policy paper) and assesses many appreciations. The presence of Setara Institute has another influence in promoting pluralism which diers from another institution that did the same issues with theological approach, while SETARA Institute do it with secular based.

(https://setara-institute.org/en/profile/)

PUSdEP Center for History and Political Ethics

The Center for History and Political Ethics (PUSdEP) was established on September 18, 2004, as an agreement and commitment of the founders consisting of academics, activists and artists under the coordination of the Chair of the Religious and Cultural Sciences Study Program, Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta. Since 2004, PUSdEP has been committed to attending and participating in efforts to open traces of the history of the Indonesian nation, which was closed tightly during the New Order regime.

Until 2014, at the age of 10, PUSdEP saw a need to discuss history and political ethics, in a wider area. The existence of PUSdEP as part of Sanata Dharma University, is intended to be a mouthpiece from the academic realm to a more practical area of ​​movement at the community level. PusdEP must be able to carry out responsibilities, to realize the basic values ​​of the university, namely loving truth, respecting differences, fighting for justice, and uphold humanity.

Some of PUSdEP’s flagship programs are divided into 4 (four) work fields. Namely the research, advocacy, public education and publication divisions. As a university-based research center, PUSDEP seeks to promote comprehensive and integrated historical approaches, to participate in building a more just and democratic society, based on ethical values ​​politics.

(https://pusdep.org/latar-belakang/)

Indonesian Consortium for Religious Studies (ICRS)

Indonesian Consortium for Religious Studies (ICRS) in cooperation with the Ministry of Religious Affairs, the United Kingdom Embassy of Jakarta and the British Council organized a three-year religious literacy program, entitled “Religious Literacy for Promoting Social Justice, Religious Harmony and Multiculturalism.” The objective of the program is to promote awareness, understanding and interaction among religious communities, while enhancing capacity of local stakeholders to build social justice agenda and advocate for policy reform to ensure harmonious living and human flourishing. While the program focused on religious extension officers/religious councilors (penyuluh agama) in the Ministry of Religious Affairs, the program included other stakeholders such as religious teachers, representations of religious institution, youth organizations, academics, and non-governmental and civil society organizations. It covered eleven cities in Indonesia and altogether engaged and trained 1177 religious extension officers and other stakeholders. In two occasions the program has been blessed with the presence of the Minister of Religious Affairs, Mr. Lukman Hakim Saifuddin, and the United Kingdom Ambassadors for Indonesia, H.E. Moazzam Malik and H.E. Owen Jenkins (see the news coverage here).

The scope of the program was included one-day workshop in seven cities, i.e. Ambon, Bandung, Makassar, Manado, Medan, Pontianak, and Ruteng, two training of trainers (ToTs) in Yogyakarta, and religious literacy module assessments in five cities, i.e. Banjarmasin, Denpasar, Makassar, Malang, and Jakarta. The program covered seven main topics in its training program, i.e. Religion and Us, Religion and Society, Religion and the State, Religion and Human Dignity, Reimagination of the role of the Religious Extension Officer, Religion and Ecology, and Religion and Internet. The outcome of the program is a module for religious extension officer that extracted the aforementioned topics from seven to four main topics, i.e. Religion and the State, Religion and Human Dignity, Religion and Internet, and Religion and Ecology.

(https://www.icrs.or.id/research-and-project-detail/religious-literacy-for-promoting-social-justice-religious-harmony-and-multiculturalism)

Center for Religious and Cross-cultural Studies (CRCS)

The CRCS MA program is focussed on the cross-cultural study of religion as a complex and vital aspect of human experience in all its diversity and as a vital social identity in the context of Indonesia. The academic study of religion is grounded in critical analysis of religious experience, identity, organization, politics, and thought through methods and theories drawn from such academic disciplines as anthropology, sociology, political science, cultural and gender studies, and the field of religious studies. It asks what each of us, with our own religious identities, can learn from each other as together we seek a deeper understanding of each other and work together for a just and peaceful future. Students belonging to faith traditions in Indonesia and the world study and learn about each other from and with faculty and staff who also come from diverse religious and cultural backgrounds.

(https://crcs.ugm.ac.id/about-us/)

LKiS Lembaga Kajian Islam dan Sosial

LKiS Lembaga Kajian Islam dan Sosial (LKIS, Institute for Islamic and Social Studies) established in 1992 in Yogyakarta by young activist from traditionalist Islam stream who seek to develop a more transformative and tolerant Islam. the group further advocating marginalized and discriminated groups. In the present, LKiS more popular as a publisher of progressive Islam books but actually also it is an NGO with interest on democratization, human rights, social justice and pluralism in Indonesia. Among the activities of the organization are conducting interfaith initiatives, class of inter-religious dialogue, established school of pluralism and promote cooperation with the religious minorities and groups in Indonesia.

(https://lkis.or.id/profil-lkis/)

Yayasan Pemberdayaan Komunitas ELSA [Lembaga Studi Sosial dan Agama]

Established in 16 August 2005 in Semarang, Yayasan ELSA (ELSA Foundation) at the beginning is an organization named Lembaga Studi Sosial dan Agama (eLSA), ELSA became a foundation with the support from academicians, inter religious leaders, and victims of discrimination and violence in the name of religion. The organization vision is to established democracy based on religious plurality, ethnic, race and gender. The mission of ELSA is to spread universal peace based on human values without being limited by primordial barriers such as religion, ethnicity, race and gender; creating social justice in society; fostering awareness of democracy; and encourage of independence and civil society. The foundation aims to be a channel of a “voice of the voiceless” (Suara mereka yang tidak bersuara). The foundation in particularly working on three domains: religiosity, ethnicity and (orientation and inclination of) gender.

ELSA online also one of the prominent online media in Indonesia that provided articles, opinion, journal, and various publications as well as publishing many books, research and reports. The foundation also has various activities and programs such as monitoring and advocating on freedom of religious and believe in Central Java (2011-2019), conducting capacity building and workshop for the community of the victims of violation of freedom on religious and belief (2013-2016), advocating the victim of discrimination on public policy based on gender and religion (2017-2018), conducting research on mainstreaming inclusive education (2019), politization of ethnic, religion and race during 2019 election in Indonesia (2019), and researching of tafsir / interpretation on religious progressivity and sexuality (2020). Apart from that ELSA regularly conduct discussions and research on religious freedom, conflict and reconcialization, religious diversity and many more.

(https://elsaonline.com/yayasan-2/)

Jaringan Lintas Iman Harmoni Sulawesi Selatan / JALIN Harmoni Sulawesi Selatan

JALIN Harmoni is a community established from a solidarity movement on the victims of violence in the name of freedom of religion and belief (Kebebasan Beragama dan Berkeyakinan /KBB). JALIN Harmoni became a melting pot for all the religions and faith to established a peaceful and harmony in South Sulawesi province. Among of their activities include on capacity building and workshop for interreligious tolerance, advocating religious freedom and tolerance as well as involve in promoting religious freedom and tolerance in South Sulawesi.

(https://jalinharmonidotorg.wordpress.com)

Indonesian Conference on Religion and Peace (ICRP)

ICRP is a nonprofit, nonsectarian, non-governmental and independent organization dedicated to advancing and promoting interfaith dialogues, democracy and peace in Indonesia. It was established by religious leaders from various religions and faiths in Indonesia. The organization was founded in 2000 by Abdurrahman Wahid, former president of Indonesia. ICRP efforts to promote the dialogues for developing religious life which is democratic, humanistic and pluralistic. Currently Musdah Mulia is the chairperson of ICRP, a dynamic and one of the most prominent feminist scholars in Indonesia. ICRP activities include an annual Festival Agama untuk Perdamaian (Religious Festival For Peace), annual Peace Train Indonesia for youth, participating in World Interfaith Week, and regular discussions.

(https://icrp-online.com/icrp/public/), (https://kabardamai.id)

Peace Generation Indonesia / Peacegen

Established in 2007, Peace Generation Indonesia, or Peacegen, is a social enterprise that works on Peace Education. The organization founded by Irfan Amalee, an Indonesian Muslim working on publishing media and Eric Lincoln, an American Christian a teacher and a drug prevention counselor in the USA.   The organization focus on Peace Education Development Training, Peace Learning Media Development, campaign and activate peace content. The organization committed to promoting peace through creative and playful media which suitable for youth and child. The Peace Generation focused its work on developing creative peace education materials for use in schools and community groups. The organization envision the world where every child and youth can learn and practice peace and empathy. Peace Gen mission is to enable every child and youth to learn peace and empathy by equipping educators with peace education creative media. The organizations relied on the 12 basic principles of peace which are including on accepting ourself, no suspicious no prejudice, ethnic diversity, religious differences, social statuses differences, gender differences, group differences, understanding conflict, rejecting violence, celebrating diversity, admit mistake, and apologize.

Their activities include on peace socio-peuner academy (PSA) an interfaith camp for youth collaboration and finding solution  ; Peace Camp which attended by youth from various religious background to promote basic values of peace and tolerance; Rumah Kita, a peace learning activity through community-based tourism; Breaking Down the Walls (BDW), a platform for the interaction of different community to learn, listen, and create a safe space to exchange the ideas and discuss about tension and conflict. 

(https://peacegen.id/peace-generation-indonesia-tentang-kami/)

Lembaga Antar Iman Maluku (LAIM)

The Maluku Interfaith Institute (LAIM) was established by three major religious institutions in Maluku (MUI Maluku, GPM Synod and the Diocese of Amboina) in order to create a forum or body of interfaith coordination. Furthermore, LAIM is a very strategic institute that become a role model of society where people from different faiths work together for the development of interreligious life. This issue holds a significant important especially during the reconstruction, rehabilitation and re-interaction in post-conflict in Maluku. The organisation envisioning an increased quality of social, cultural and economic life in Maluku as a manifestation of the religious-community resilience. Three working areas of  LAIM are to empower society, to form coalitions and networks between society and stakeholders, and to advocate regulations that aim at reintegrating a post conflict society.

(https://lembagaantarimanmaluku.wordpress.com/about/)

Gusdurian Network Indonesia (GNI)

Established in 2010, the Gus Durian is named after late Indonesian President K.H. Abdurahman Wahid, who was also known colloquially in Indonesia as “Gus Dur.” President Wahid was 4th president in Indonesia and had strived to promote interfaith dialogue and multiculturalism. His work became an inspiration for many Indonesians, also called “Gusdurians,”. The GNI was founded after his passing to encourage and consolidate interaction among Gusdurians, and further promote Gus Dur’s advocacy for minority rights, religious freedom and tolerance. The GNI is the arena for people from all backgrounds to work together as a democracy, especially at a time when the space for human rights activists is becoming gradually restrictive[2]

(https://gusdurian.net/tentang-jaringan-gusdurian/)

SADAP Indonesia/satu dalam perbedaan Indonesia

SADAP Indonesia is a meeting space from different religious and ethnical background to meet each other in West Kalimantan province. The organization has missions to include all elements especially young generation to maintain pluralism and harmony, and maintain communication among ethnic groups, race, gender and culture.

Their activities include on to create a platform to bring youth from various religious and ethnical background called Temu Pemuda Lintas Iman Kalimantan Barat (Tepelima Kalbar), film discussions, visiting places of worship, and live sharing from home. 

(http://www.sadapindonesia.web.id/2020/09/visi-dan-misi.html)

FKUB and PKUB (Forum Kerukunan Umat Beragama / Religious Harmony Forum)

Forum Kerukunan Umat Beragama (FKUB) or Religious Harmony Forum established in 2006 after the join decree from Ministry of Religious Affair (MORA) and Ministry of Internal Affair Nomor 9 dan Nomor 8 Tahun 2006. Therefore, the forum is under the supervision of MORA. FKUB has a consultative function and has branches at provinces and districts / cities level. FKUB membership is from the local religious leaders and with the support from regional or local government.

FKUB role is to maintain religious harmony and accommodate issues on diversity and religious affair. FKUB would assist government in conducting public meeting or discussion on policies/laws/regulations on religious matter.

(https://kesbangpol.palangkaraya.go.id/forum-kemitraan/fkub/)

PKUB or Pusat Kerukunan Umat Beragama / Center for Kerukunan Umat Beragama established in 2016 as a supporting body for MORA and has responsibility to Minister of Religious Affairs.  PKUB has a function to create a formula and policy implementation, standardization and technical assistance as well as evaluation in religious issues.

(https://pkub.kemenag.go.id)


[1] This list was compiled in November 2021 for the project “Democracy and Interfaith Initiatives” funded by the Berlin Center for Global Engagement of the Berlin University Alliance. The main contributors were Mona Behnke, Leona Pröpper, and Mutmainna Syam. We sincerely thank Dr. Teguh Wijaya Mulya at the University of Surabaya and Dr. Evi Lina Sutrisno at the Gadjah Mada University in Yogjakarta for their contributions to this list. The responsibility for any errors lies with Dr. Saskia Schäfer.